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Sunday, October 2, 2016

From the Leopard's Lair: Indian Pitta, White-browed Fantail, Grey Francolin and Bay-backed Shrike

[Jhalana Forest Reserve. June/July, 2016,

The greatest danger faced by this blogger while birding in Michigan has been the insidious threat posed by despicable ticks and abominable mosquitoes. This pales, however, in what one can encounter in other parts of the world -- indeed, to put this in perspective, as you enter Jhalana Forest Reserve (on the outskirts of Jaipur, India), the reason visitors are required to stay in their vehicles soon becomes apparent:

Panthera Pardus is is a formidable carnivore and predator; and, with males weighing up to 160 lbs, they will, although rarely, attack and eat humans. 

Rapid urbanization and loss of habitat has meant a severe depletion of the leopard population in India -- only about 14,000 are left in the wild today. The only positive is that human fatalities from leopard attacks have also decreased from 11,909 (total fatalities over a 40 year period from the late 1800's to the early 1900's) to just a handful of attacks a year today.

But, a foray into the leopard's territory holds its own reward for those who dare to enter the leopard's lair and explore the Indian jungle for its avian riches -- a fact that this blogger profited from immensely on his recent summer vacation to India where the following species were savored in full:
  • Indian Pitta
  • White-browed Fantail
  • Indian Silverbill
  • Indian Peafowl
  • Bay-backed Shrike
  • Chestnut shouldered Petronia
  • Oriental Magpie-Robin
  • Green Bee-eater
  • Black Drongo
  • Grey Francolin
  • Hoopoe
  • Cinerous Tit
  • White-throated Kingfisher
We start with the Pitta:

The Indian Pitta is a spectacular songbird and its bright spectrum of colors and loud song enliven the forest --now a verdant green thanks to the monsoon rains.

This bird is a ground forager and can usually be seen among the leaf litter digging for insects. In the second photograph below, the Pitta takes cover as a Shikra (Sparrowhawk-like raptor) flew above.

White-browed Fantail is an Old World flycatcher -- and one look at the picture below leaves no doubt as to the origin of its name:

The fantail ranges from the subcontinent through to SE Asia; indeed, it was the sweet song of this species that made the blogger oblivious to the approach of the leopards.

Indian Silverbill was also spied:

Indian Peafowl is always a welcome sight:

During the monsoon, many males convene at a lekking site to display their fantastically symmetrical and patterned tail feathers -- the effect on the opposite sex is predictable -- the peahens swoon and appear completely mesmerized  by this hypnotic seduction.

Bay-backed Shrike is a colorful example of the Shrike family:

 Chestnut-shouldered Petronia is also known as the Yellow-throated Sparrow:

This species is notable for being the "spark bird" for the Alexander Wilson of India -- Salim Ali.

Oriental Magpie-Robin:

This striking species belongs to Old World flycatcher family and is the national bird of Bangladesh.

Green Bee-eater ranges from Africa to SE Asia:

Black Drongo is a member of the drongo family -- these are intelligent birds whose members have a strong mimicking ability.

"Tea kettle, tea kettle, ..." -- the call of the Grey Francolin is a familiar call in the jungle:

This is a handsome landfowl species with finely patterned plumage.

The Hoopoe is the only extant member of its family:

The Hoopoe has an Ibis-like bill which it uses to feed like a shorebird; it looks somewhat like a woodpecker and nests in tree cavities but has the extravagant crest of a cockatoo.

It is no wonder that this enigma is the sole member of its family -- nothing else is quite like this bird!

The Cinerous Tit is much more familiar:

Not all kingfishers fish -- indeed, some have adapted well to arid environments such as the White-throated Kingfisher

The apex predators of North American forests -- bears, pumas, and wolves have long disappeared or retreated to the remotest parts of the country. Yet, in some of the truly wild places on earth, we are reminded that we share this planet with all manner of life -- including big cats like Panthera Pardus. And, for the intrepid birder, an excursion into these areas will reveal avian treasures such as Indian Pitta, White-browed Fantail and Bay-backed Shrike.
Prey species of the leopard:


Bob Pelkey said...

A further inquiry into Jhalana Forest Reserve, Hemant, revealed that only 15-18 of the leopards are believed to live in the forest. I certainly wouldn't want to encounter an Indian rock python on foot there either. Wonderful documentation of a great diversity of wildlife.

Digital Plume Hunter said...

I've just updated this post with the prey species of the leopard, Bob -- it feeds mainly on antelope (Nilgai)....Good thing we can both outrun the python! lol